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Network security, Security softwares,wifi security, wireless security


At first welcome to my Network Security forum. Here you can find all the security features of a network and Operating system also. In this blog you will find the best notes. I tried to simplify and descriptive those notes. You can find here different types of Adware and Spyware threats and their prevention, definition of Different types virus and procedure their cure, Antivirus and some link of free antivirus, spy cure, adware cure etc. we can also learn here How to secure telephone network, Large area network (LAN), Wide area network. Here I have provided the trick of Firewall, The architecture of a network, Cryptography, Internet Key exchange, IP security, Crypto History, Cryptography Blocks and many more which will help you to further study. And this is not the end Keep visited this blog and I will provide you more a more security tricks. And don’t forget to comments on that if it is bad or good. Please do comment on my thesis. Your comments will help me to upgrade my thesis. And if you want some exact notes on some security tricks. Please do inform me. My email id is ep6secuirity@gmail.com I will try to do my best, if I will not be able to fulfill your requirements, I will make you inform.

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Utsav Basu

For – ep6network.


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Web Hacking Tools


Web server security can be divided into two broad categories: testing the server for common vulnerabilities and testing the web application. A web server should be configured according to this checklist before it is deployed on the Internet:

  • Secure network configuration A firewall or other device limits incoming traffic to necessary ports (probably just 80 and 443).

  • Secure host configuration The operating system has up-to-date security patches, auditing has been enabled, and only administrators may access the system.

  • Secure web server configuration The web server’s default settings have been reviewed, sample files have been removed, and the server runs in a restricted user account.

Of course, such a short list doesn’t cover the specifics of an Apache/PHP combination or the details of every recommended Internet Information Server (IIS) installation setting, but it should serve as the basis for a strong web server build policy. A vulnerability scanner should also be used to verify the build policy.

The security of the web application should be of concern as well. This chapter focuses on tools used to check a web server for common vulnerabilities, but the handful of tools mentioned here address the concept of testing the actual web application for security problems rather than just the server upon which the application is installed.

Vulnerability Scanners

Web servers such as Apache, iPlanet, and IIS have gone through many revisions and security updates. A web vulnerability scanner basically consists of a scanning engine and a catalog. The catalog contains a list of common files, files with known vulnerabilities, and common exploits for a range of servers. For example, a vulnerability scanner looks for backup files (such as renaming default.asp to default.asp.bak) or tries directory traversal exploits (such as checking for ..%255c..%255c). The scanning engine handles the logic for reading the catalog of exploits, sending the requests to the web server, and interpreting the requests to determine whether the server is vulnerable. These tools target vulnerabilities that are easily fixed by secure host configurations, updated security patches, and a clean web document root.


Whisker, created by RFP, was created to add to a Perl-based scanning library rather than as a solo tool that would be further developed. Nikto, by Sullo, is based on the next generation LibWhisker library. From the start, it offers support for the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), proxies, and port scanning.


As a Perl-based scanner, nikto runs on Unix, Windows, and Mac OS X. It uses standard Perl libraries that accompany default Perl installations. You can download nikto from http://www.cirt.net. Nikto also requires LibWhisker (LW.pm), which is simple to install.

LibWhisker A fully functional copy of LibWhisker comes with the nikto tar file. Otherwise, you can always download the latest version from http://www.wiretrip.net/rfp/2/index.asp. Installation is simple, but it does vary ever so slightly from most CPAN modules. After untarring the download, enter the directory and make the library. Once that is done, install LW.pm into your Perl directory. You can do this in three commands:

$ cd libwhisker-current
$ perl Makefile.pl lib
$ perl Makefile.pl install

LibWhisker might seem redundant because it apes the functionality of several Perl modules that already exist, such as LWP, Base64, and HTML::Parser. The advantage of LibWhisker is that it is lean (a smaller file size than all the other modules it replaces), simple (a single module), focused (handles only HTTP and HTTPS requests), and robust (provides a single interface for handling request and response objects). It is also more legible than the original whisker! LibWhisker has also joined the legions of open source code on the sourceforge.net servers, so it shouldn’t be too hard to find.

Scanning To get started with nikto you need only to specify a target host with the -h option. As the engine discovers potential vulnerabilities, notes accompany the output to explain why a finding may be a security risk:

- Nikto 1.30/1.15 - www.cirt.net
+ Target IP:
+ Target Hostname:
+ Target Port: 80
+ Start Time: Thu Sep 25 17:07:36 2003
- Scan is dependent on "Server" string which can be faked, use
-g to override + Server: Apache-AdvancedExtranetServer/2.0.44
(Mandrake Linux/11mdk)mod_perl/1.99_08 Perl/v5.8.0 mod_ssl/2.0.44
OpenSSL/0.9.7a PHP/4.3.1 + All CGI directories 'found' - assuming
invalid responses and using none (use -a to force check all possible
dirs)+ Allowed HTTP Methods: GET,HEAD,POST,OPTIONS,TRACE+ HTTP method
'TRACE' is typically only used for debugging. It should be disabled.
+ mod_ssl/2.0.44 appears to be outdated (current is at least mod_ssl/2.8.15)
(may depend on server version)
+ OpenSSL/0.9.7a appears to be outdated (current is at least 1.15)
+ PHP/4.3.1 appears to be outdated (current is at least PHP/4.3.3)
+ mod_ssl/2.0.44 OpenSSL/0.9.7a PHP/4.3.1 - mod_ssl 2.8.7 and lower are
vulnerable to a remote buffer overflow which may allow a remote shell
(difficult to exploit). CAN-2002-0082.
+ PHP/4.3.1 - PHP below 4.3.3 may allow local attackers to safe mode and
gain access to unauthorized files. BID-8203.
+ /~root - Enumeration of users is possible by requesting ~username
(responds with Forbidden for real users, not found for non-existent users)
(GET).+ / - TRACE option appears to allow XSS or credential theft. See
http://www.cgisecurity.com/whitehat-mirror/WhitePaper_screen.pdf for details
+ 1161 items checked - 2 items found on remote host
+ End Time: Thu Sep 25 17:10:03 2003 (147 seconds)

lists the basic options necessary to run nikto. The most important options are setting the target host, the target port, and the output file. Nikto accepts the first character of an option as a synonym. For example, you can specify –s or –ssl to use the HTTPS protocol, or you can specify –w or –web to format output in HTML.

Table 7-1: Basic Nikto Command-Line Options

Nikto Option



Specify a single host. Nikto does not accept files with hostnames, as in the –H option for whisker.


Specify an arbitrary port. Take care; specifying port 443 does not imply HTTPS. You must remember to include –ssl.


Provide verbose output. This cannot be abbreviated (-v is reserved for the virtual hosts option).


Enable SSL support. Nikto does not assume HTTPS if you specify target port 443.


Instruct nikto to ignore the server's banner and run a scan using the entire database.


Format output in HTML, CSV, or text. Must be combined with
-F htm
-F csv
-F txt


Log output to a file. For example,
-output nikto80_website.html –F htm


Provide HTTP Basic Authentication credentials. For example,
-id username:password


Use a virtual host for the target web server rather than the IP address. This affects the content of the HTTP Host: header. It is important to use this option in shared server environments.


IDS evasion techniques. Nikto can use nine different techniques to format the URL request in an attempt to bypass unsophisticated string-matching intrusion detection systems

You should remember a few basics about running nikto: specify
the host (-h),port (-p), and SSL (-s), and write the output to
a file.

Additional Nikto Command-Line Options




Scan all possible CGI directories. This disregards 404 errors that nikto receives for the base directory. See the “Config.txt” section for instructions on how to configure which directories it will search.


Print the cookies returned by the server. This either produces too much unnecessary information or very useful information depending on how the server treats unauthenticated users.


Mutated checks are described in the “Config.txt” section.


Prepend the directory supplied with –root to all requests. This helps when you wish to test sites with "off by one" directory structures. For example, many language localization techniques will prepend a two-character language identifier to the entire site.
When this is the case, nikto may incorrectly report that it could not find common scripts. Thus, use the –root option:
./nikto.pl –h website –p 80 –r /en


Scan the target server. The scan can use nmap or internal Perl-based socket connections.


Do not resolve IP addresses to hostnames.

-timeout N

Stop scanning if no data is received after a period of N seconds. The default is 10.


Use the proxy defined in the config.txt file. Previous versions of nikto required you to turn this option on or off in the config.txt file. This is more convenient.


Enable verbose debug messages. This option cannot be abbreviated. It basically enumerates the LibWhisker request hash for each URL nikto retrieves. This information quickly becomes overwhelming; here's just a small portion of the information printed:
D: - Request Hash:
D: - Connection: Keep-Alive
D: - Content-Length: 0
D: - Host:
D: - User-Agent: Mozilla/4.75 (Nikto/1.30 )
D: - $whisker->INITIAL_MAGIC: 31337
D: - $whisker->anti_ids:
D: - $whisker->data:
D: - $whisker->force_bodysnatch: 0
D: - $whisker->force_close: 0
D: - $whisker->force_open: 0
D: - $whisker->host:
D: - $whisker->http_req_trailer:
D: - $whisker->http_ver: 1.1


Perform a syntax check of the main scan_database.db and user_scan_database.db files. These files contain the specific tests that nikto performs against the server. You should need this only if you decide to customize one of these files (and if you do, consider dropping the nikto team an e-mail with your additions). This option cannot be abbreviated.


Update nikto's plug-ins and find out whether a new version exists. This option cannot be abbreviated.

The –update option makes it easy to maintain nikto. It causes the program to connect to http://www.cirt.net and download the latest plug-ins to keep the scan list current:

$ ./nikto.pl –update
+ No updates required.
+ www.cirt.net message: Please report any bugs found in the 1.30 version

Config.txt Nikto uses the config.txt file to set certain options that are either used less often or are most likely to be used for every scan. This file includes a dozen settings. An option can be unset by commenting the line with a hash (#) symbol. Here are the default settings:

CGIDIRS=/bin/ /cgi/ /mpcgi/ /cgi-bin/ /cgi-sys/ /cgi-local/ /htbin/
/cgibin/ /cgis/ /scripts/ /cgi-win/ /fcgi-bin/
#CLIOPTS=-g –a
MUTATEDIRS=/....../ /members/ /porn/ /restricted/ /xxx/
MUTATEFILES=xxx.htm xxx.html porn.htm porn.html
GOOGLERS=password passwd login

The CGIDIRS setting contains a space-delimited list of directories. Nikto tries to determine whether each directory exists before trying to find files within it, although the –allcgi option overrides this behavior.

The CLIOPTS setting contains command-line options to include every time nikto runs, which is useful for shortening the command line by placing the –generic, –verbose, and –web options here.

NMAP and SKIPPORTS control nikto’s port-scanning behavior (-findports). If the nmap binary is not provided (which is usually the case for Windows systems), nikto uses Perl functions to port scan. The SKIPPORTS setting contains a space-delimited list of port numbers never to scan.

Use the PROXY* settings to enable proxy support for nikto.

Although there is rarely a need to change the DEFAULTHTTPVER setting, you may find servers that support only version 1.0.

The PLUGINDIR setting points to the directory for default and user-defined plug-ins (equivalent to whisker scan.db files). By default, nikto looks for the /plugins subdirectory in the location from which it is executed.

The MUTATE* settings greatly increase the time it takes to scan a server with the –mutate option. MUTATEDIRS instructs nikto to run every check from the base directory or directories listed here. This is useful for web sites that use internationalization, whereby the /scripts directory becomes the /1033/scripts directory. The MUTATEFILES settings instructs nikto to run a check for each file against every directory in its current plug-in. Note that there are two mutate techniques, -mutate-3 and –mutate4, that ignore these values. Technique 3 performs user enumeration against Apache servers by requesting /~user directories, which takes advantage of incorrectly configured public_html (UserDir module) settings in the httpd.conf file. Technique 4 is similar, but it uses the /cgi-bin/cgiwrap/~ method.

The GOOGLERS setting provides some fun Google searches for finding sensitive information. This technique is better accomplished with a browser and slightly more sophisticated searches. It serves more a role of curiosity in nikto as opposed to important functionality.


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